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Anti-inflammatory Potential of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Niyog-niyogan) Leaf Ethanolic Fraction Phytochemicals on the Chorioallantoic Membrane of 10-Day Old Anas luzonica (Duck) Eggs

Raymond Fernando B. Yu, Gracia Fe B. Yu, Deborah Lorraine Y. Tan, John Ezekiel P. Tagorda, Vivente Paolo A. Rubio II, Blaire Justine S. Rocas, Pia Mae S. Moreno, Vielka Alexandria W. Maturino, Jecelle D. Masula, Daryl E. Magno, Neil Fidelle G. Lomibao, Kim Michelle P. Guinto, Raissa Clarisse M. Enriquez, Jebb Patrick M. Delos Santos, Jillian B. Danganan, Vanna Melinda S. Calimon, Ronnie Antonio G. Badong, Jose Emmanuel C. Mariano, Richelle L. Santiago

Abstract


Background: Prolonged or chronic inflammation could pose several harmful effects on our body. Consequently, there has been an increased usage of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs, which by themselves also have potentially serious side effects. Thus, the use of herbal medicines is being tapped to provide better alternatives with potentially higher efficacy and lower side effects.

Objectives: This study aimed to extract and identify the phytochemicals from the leaves of the FicusĀ pseudopalma Blanco, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extract and its fractions on the ten-day-old duck (Anas luzonica) eggs.

Methods: The extracts of ethanol-soluble phytochemicals from the leaves of F. pseudopalma were fractionated using a modified Kupchan partitioning method. The identification of phytochemicals in both extracts and fractions was done using the thin-layer chromatographic and phytochemical tests. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude leaf ethanolic extract and the diethyl ether and aqueous fractions were determined semiqualitatively using a modified duck egg chorioallontoic membrane assay across different concentrations in triplicates. Hydrocortisone and 0.9% normal saline solution (NSS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Results and Conclusion: Phytochemical and thin layer chromatographic analyses of the F. pseudopalma leaf ethanolic extract yielded a flavonoid-rich extract, which distributed itself between the diethyl ether and aqueous fractions after serial liquid-liquid partitioning against hexane, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate. At 300 mg L-1, the crude extract, diethyl ether extract, and aqueous extract showed inflammation inhibition. The crude extract showed low inhibition of inflammation, while the diethyl ether and aqueous extracts showed moderate inhibition of inflammation.


Keywords


Ficus pseudopalma; duck egg chorioallontoic membrane assay; anti-inflammation

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