Promoting Sufficient Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Teachers: An Intervention Using the Solomon Four Group Design

Nona Rachel C. Mira, Nymia P. Simbulan


Background: Majority of recent deaths in the Philippines were attributed to noncommunicable diseases. Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables can potentially decrease the burden of certain heart diseases and cancer. Health promotion and education interventions have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of a self-management intervention on psychosocial variables and fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) of public school teachers.

Method: The study utilized the Solomon four-group design. The psychosocial variables were derived from Bandura's social cognitive theory and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour. FVI was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. An assessment of interaction between the intervention and pretest, group comparison tests, and nested ANOVA approach were performed.

Results: Teachers from 44 schools, 112 in the intervention group and 116 in the control group, were included in the analysis. Results indicate no significant interaction between treatment and pre-test group (F[1,224]=0.15, p=0.703), no significant differences in the psychosocial variables scores and FVI of the intervention and control groups (p=>0.05). Significant findings in two of four psychosocial variables, particularly diet-related attitude (t=2.412, p=0.009) and knowledge regarding the recommended FVI (Fisher's exact test p=0.010), and mean FVI (t=1.898, p=0.031) were only found using data of the posttest-only intervention group who were able to attend
the lecture-workshop and control group.

Conclusion: The study found no evidence of pretest sensitization. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that there were differences in FVI and psychosocial variables of the intervention and control groups postintervention.


fruit and vegetable intake; self-management intervention; teachers; Solomon four-group design; Bandura's social cognitive theory; Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

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