Characterization and Stability Study of Reduced L-glutathione-loaded Niosomes

Joshua Santos, Marina Osi, Mary Jho-Anne Corpuz, Oliver Villaflores


Background: Glutathione is a major antioxidant in the body that serves as a substrate for conjugation reactions and regulates cell proliferation. Low levels of glutathione have been linked to cancer, liver problems and other chronic diseases. Studies have shown that oral supplementation is not effective in increasing the glutathione level in the body.

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to prepare a niosomal formulation of glutathione and to characterize
the niosomal formulation. Furthermore, the study compared the effect of the charge inducer in the formulation.

Methodology: The method was divided to the preparation, characterization and stability study of the niosomal formulation. The niosomal formulation was produced by thin film hydration with varying Span 60 (Sorbitan monostearate) and cholesterol ratios. Niosomal formulation with highest entrapment efficiency was further characterized for mean particle size, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release.

Results and Discussion: Formulation A entrapped 98.21% of the glutathione. Addition of charge inducer increased its entrapment efficiency to 98.91%. Furthermore, both niosomal formulations released glutathione at pH 7.4 in 1.0M phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The mean vesicular size obtained was 1,242.97 + 40.52nm. Differential Scanning Calorimetry revealed compatibility between glutathione and its excipients. Both formulations do not cause cytotoxicity in human dermal fibroblast. The stability study also revealed that it was stable at 5C and 40C for 3 months.

Conclusion: Results of this study suggested the potential use of niosomes in the targeted delivery of glutathione. This is the first report on the use of niosomal preparations through thin film hydration technique in the delivery of reduced L-glutathione.


glutathione; niosome; drug delivery; formulation; bioavailability; cytotoxicity and stability

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Print ISSN: 2704-3517; Online ISSN: 2738-042X