Development and Validation of Culture Competence Tool for Filipino Nurses

Rica Rose May A. Rubio


Background: There are several metrics for determining cultural competency in nurses, but none of them apply to Filipino nurses caring for patients with mental health issues in the Philippines setting.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to create a cultural competency tool for Filipino nurses (CCTFN) caring for patients with mental health issues in hospitals, communities, or schools.

Methodology: A sequential exploratory design was used. The qualitative phase utilized a scoping review and guided interviews, followed by the quantitative phase involving the validity test by five experts and the reliability tests participated by 140 nurses in Zamboanga City. IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used to examine the data.

Results: The scoping review utilized PRISMA to search for eligible articles and the interviews resulted in an initial 51-item pool. The tool's content validity (S-CVI=0.992) was confirmed by a panel of experts. The inter-rater (ICC=0.773), inter-item (α =0.838) reliability, and exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors that accounted for 68.38 percent variance, resulting in 25 valid items. The four factors were “awareness on the Filipino concept of mental illness,” “attitudes towards fostering an efficient relationship between patient with mental health problems and self,” “skills in addressing cultural needs and issues of patients with mental health problems,” and “knowledge on socio-political factors affecting patients with mental health problems.”

Conclusion/Implications for Practice: Overall, the CCTFN was found to be valid and reliable. This tool can improve nursing care and inform training programs in the Philippines to improve mental health service provision and reduce stigma.


cultural competence; mental health nursing; Filipino culture; exploratory sequential design; tool development; Philippines

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Print ISSN: 2704-3517; Online ISSN: 2738-042X