Twenty-first-century management of non-specific spinal pain: A narrative review of the paradigm shift in management of back and neck pain

Aila Nica Bandong, Trudy Rebbeck, Martin Mackey, Maribeth Anne Gelisanga, Andrew Leaver


Non-specific spinal pain is a leading cause of disability worldwide and traditional approaches to management have failed to address the societal burden of spinal pain. This narrative review describes the shift in approach to the management of non-specific spinal pain over the past two decades and outlines key recommendations in modern practice guidelines that are informed by these changes. Implementation of evidence-based practice for spinal pain remains a challenge.


practice guidelines; spinal pain; biopsychosocial model

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Print ISSN: 2704-3517; Online ISSN: 2783-042X