The effect of fast food calorie labels on calories ordered by college students in Quezon City

Hiroki G. Ogawa, Marc Justin C. Ong, Michaella Audrey V. Morano, Katrina Grace L. Navarro, Hannah Joy B. Morales, Ferleen C. Moldero, Sidney Christian Montas, Ijay N. Montemayor, Edryan C. Ng, Jerico B. Ngo, Clyde Justin A. Nodora, Antonio Gabriel A. Olympia, Gregoria Ysabel A. Oracion, Vivienne May B. Ordoñez, Mary Angela T. Ortega, Sigfredo M. Solano


Background:  There is an increasing trend of obesity in the Philippines with approximately 28.8% of adults
considered overweight and 9.6% obese. This is presumably due to a shift in eating patterns towards dining out in restaurants and fast food chains for their convenience. Excess fast food consumption results in diets that are calorie dense yet nutritionally deficient due to their high levels of fat, sugar, and salt leading to increased prevalence of associated diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Objective:  The researchers determined the effect of presenting the caloric information of fast food items on the total calories ordered among college students in private and public higher education institutions in Quezon City.

Methodology:  A double-blind experimental research was performed with 179 students by convenience sampling. The participants were randomly assigned to a control group (without caloric labels) and an experimental group (with caloric labels). An online questionnaire was sent to each subject containing their menu and order form along with questions on their demographical data (age, sex, food allowance, BMI, physical activity).

Results:  Using single linear regression, none of the demographic characteristics were found to be confounding variables. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the experimental group ordered significantly less calories (p-value = 0.013).

Conclusion: The results of the study conclude that those presented with calorie labels ordered less calories than
the control.


nutrition; college; fast food; calories

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Print ISSN: 2704-3517; Online ISSN: 2738-042X